Correct skin care
Skin is the most massive organ of the body and makes around 16% of the overall body mass. It consists of epidermis (surface part) and dermis. The thickness of the skin is determinedon the basis of epidermis width(thin or thick). Underneath dermis, there is hypodermis or subcutaneous tissue. The role of skinis to protect the body from external influences, as well as from evaporation of large quantities of water.
- protects from UV rays, primarily by melanin (skin pigment) which is withdrawn from deeper skin layers to block the penetration of the rays
- protects against the action of chemical agents
- protects against mechanical injuries
- protects against microorganisms
- protects against temperature
- has the sense of touch function.
Dermis contains blood capillaries, nerves, touch sensors, sweat and greaseglands, collagen and elastic fibres. The skin composition and its characteristics differ depending on the age, gender, genetic predispositions, and skin care also differslikewise. To provide adequate care for our skin, it is important to identify the type of our skin:
-dry: thin; brittle, peeling and exhibits first wrinkles already in youth. For this type of skin, there are products which contain a lot of grease and nutrients and moisture, primarily the products with urea, olive oil, almond oil and shea butter...
-greasy: increased secretion of grease glands; rough to touch, prone to blackheads, with fewer wrinkles. The products needed for this type of skin must contain as little grease as possible, and today, there are creams-gels and emulsions with more water than grease.
-combined:greasy T-zone (forehead, nose, chin) while the rest of the face is dry.
-normal: ideally moist;smooth to touch, and the wrinkles are barely visible. The choice of the care product is easier in comparison to other skin types - needing a product with an optimal ratio between grease and watery phases. -sensitive: translucent with visible capillaries; requires special cosmetics without preservatives, usually with a therapeutic action.
The care process is the same for all, but the choice of product components is different for different skin types, beginning with:
- cleansing with milk, lotions and gels; which must not dry out the skin, and it is usually necessary that they contain mildly effective oils: used once a day (in the evening)
- piling:removing hard layers of the skin; needs to be done once a week
- masks: for skin moisturising; for nutrition; against wrinkles; take toxins and excess grease out of the skin
- creams and emulsions for the face, concentratesfor the areas around the eyes, breastregion, around the eyes, serumsfor hydration and nourishment, with an anti-aging effect against cellulite and stretch marks.
Specific groups: Baby skin is not yet fully developed and its protection must be more meticulous. In the first period of life, we recommend care with a wetgauze, soaps with synthetic tendizides, preservative free creams. Diaper rashis manifested in redness, light yellow rash in the diaper region or swollen skin covered in pus pimples. Mild antiseptics are used, children powder can be applied onto a completely dry skin, as well as creams produced specifically for this purpose. Atopic dermatitis is the most common type of dermatitis amongst children. Atopic means a genetically conditioned propensity to increased production ofIgE. It commonly appears in children around the third month of age and manifests in redness, dry and cracked skin on the face, scalp, back of the neck and whist wrinkles. To provide care for such skin, the right cosmetics must be chosen: oily baths, creams, milk with a high lipid and urea content. Products containing corticosteroids are only used in the last stage, strictly upon doctor's recommendations. In most children, symptoms disappear around the age of five.
Pregnant women must pay particular attention to skin care, and the choice of products. During pregnancy, the hormonal status changes, which has an impact on whole body, as well as on skin. Everyday care includes oily baths, use of products which increase the skin elastics and prevent skin cracks (greasy creams, anti stretch mark products). They must not contain antibiotics, alcohols, salicylic and fruit acids.
Apart from skin care, it is also important to choose carefully the products to prevent diseases and provide protection. Those are products that can be divided according to different influences of external factors. During winter, strong cold, wind and snow protection factors are needed. During summer, we recommend products with protective factors and high water content. Other than that, products are also recommended depending on different situations, such as, mountaineering, swimming, orchards, as well as work in enclosed rooms.
At the end, we ought to stress that healthy skin requires adequatefood. Plenty of water (except in risk groups)and vitamin and mineral rich food are necessary for skin to be healthy, just like the rest of the body.
B. Sc. ph Sanja Grubor, Boska Pharmacy manager