In normal situations, the organism does not react on many external influences because they pose no threat to it. When there is an allergy, the body is oversensitive and reacts dramatically on everything it recognizes as foreign.
The most common allergies are:
- skin changes
- food allergic reactions
Respiratory allergies: Allergen are: house dust mites, herbal, weed and tree pollen. They manifest in respiratory duct problems. Allergic rhinitis is one of the most common allergies that 15 to 30% of the population suffer from. The symptoms are sneezing, watery secretion from the nose, nose obstruction, itchy eyes, nose and throat. It is very important to differentiate between an allergy and a cold, primarily due to the treatment process.
|duration||several weeks or months||a few days|
|secretion||translucent and thin||thick and intransparent|
Allergic conjunctivitis: Allergens are: smog, smoke, gases, UV and other radiations, spending time in front of a TV set or computer. Symptoms are: hyperaemia, oedemaescudation, increased secretion, and the subjective symptoms are: itching, burning, light sensitivity (photophobia) and feeling a foreign body in the eye. It is of extreme importance not to confuse an allergic reaction with other diseases, so one of the main symptoms is itching and burning. Conjunctiva inflammation (conjunctivitis) may be mistaken for an eye allergy, but the symptoms are different primarily in that the eyelids stick in the morning, and there is a thick secretion.
Skin changesappear under the influence of allergens with local actions (creams, gels, touching clothes, metal piercing, plants) and the symptoms manifest in a rash on the spot where the contact took place with a possibility of spreading and an oedema.
Allergic reactions to food: The most common causes are: kernelled fruits (peanuts, walnuts, hazelnuts), milk products, gluten, tomato, citruses, strawberries, as well as additives and preservatives in food. The symptoms depend on allergens and organisms. Manifestations vary from mild irritations to anaphylactic shock: nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, stomach pain, skin rush and eczema, oedema (swellings).
Specific groups: pregnant women, breastfeedingmothers, children, particularly those under immunosuppressive therapies must be cautious about food and avoid exposure to allergens.
BABIES: breast feeding mothers protect their babies with their milk by not transferring allergens but antibodies which protect the child's organism until it develops its own. If the baby is under a high risk of developing an allergy (the genetic factor), it is best to introduce solid food only after the child reaches one year of age: avoid pods, citruses, juices; meat and protein food should only be introduced after nine months, and cow milk and yolk after the age of one.
- The most important is to determine whether the person is allergic or not; then the cause of the allergy should be identified, act preventively (avoid exposure to allergens) and eventually implement therapy in an adequate way.
- Concentration of pollen is lowest in the morning, when there is no wind, or after rain. Pollen may stay in hair, clothes, so it is necessary for allergic people to wash hair and hands often, ventilate rooms when there is no wind, remove garnish plants and wear sunglasses. It is necessary to remove ambrosia around the residence, as it is one of the most common causes of allergy.
- It is important to mention sun allergies, which manifest in itching, redness, rush, up to burns and blisters. Use of products with high protection factors, avoiding sun exposure, as well intake of products with calcium (with previous consultation with a doctor or a pharmacist) reduce the likelihood of dramatic body reactions and the consequences that may develop.
- It is very important that people allergic to bee, wasp, or hornet stings or to penicillin be aware of the consequences that may appear, and that they seek medical help as soon as possible.
- To protect ourselves from allergies, and to react adequately if they occur, it is necessary to abide by the doctor's or pharmacist's advice.
B. Sc. ph Sanja Grubor, Boska Pharmacy manager