High blood pressure - hypertension
Blood pressure of a healthy person, systolic (upper) is 120mmHg, while the diastolic (lower) is 80mmHg. Artery hypertension, according to the definition of the World Health Organization, is a state in which the upper blood pressure is elevated above 140 mmHg, while the lower blood pressure is above 90mmHg. Blood pressure values are observed during the period of 1 to 3 weeks, and only then does the doctor make a diagnosis.
Artery hypertension is a disease of modern age and it is believed that over 30% of all people suffer from this disease. The occurrence of the disease is related to modern life risks such as: increased stress, obesity, fatty food, reduced physical activity, lack of sleep, smoking, alcohol consumption, and the use of medicaments. In more than 90% of the cases, the cause of hypertension remains unknown, and in 10%of the cases, it is a consequence of other diseases, such as kidney diseases, problems with thyroidal gland, adrenal glands, etc.
Hypertension is a disease which frequently exists without any severe symptoms. Young people can experience: sweating, anxiety, quick changes of complexion, cold hands and feet, heart thumping and sleep disturbance. Elderly patients, with the diagnosis, experience buzzing in the ears, morning headaches, heart thumping, nose bleeding and dizziness. Over time, organism gets used to high blood pressure and a person may live with it without symptoms. Nevertheless, such a state burdens the heart and the blood vessels, and leaves long term consequences on the hearth, the brain, kidneys and eyes.
The most common complication of acute hypertension is brain bleeding (stroke). Chronic hypertension complications are: chronic kidney insufficiency, brain artery aneurisms and blindness. Hypertension may lead to progression of diseases such as arteriosclerosis.
Once the diagnosis is made, the doctor first considers the factors that have lead to hypertension. The first step in the treatment are non-pharmacological measures. They mean changing the life habits that have lead to hypertension and adoption of a healthier lifestyle. These measures include:
- reduction of body weight
- reduced intake of salt (up to 2g a day) and fats
- physical activity (everyday walking)
- giving up smoking
- giving up alcohol consumption
The second step in treating is pharmacological measures. This means application of blood pressure reduction drugs. The choice of drug, or several drugs to treat hypertension is made by the doctor on the basis of the age of the patient, general condition of the patient and other factors.
The purpose of the therapy is bring blood pressure down to normal values and prevent acute complications of the disease, thereby reducing the number of deadly outcomes of the disease.
Artery blood pressure control E
very patient suffering from hypertension is advised to perform self control of blood pressure. Blood pressure measuring needs to be done at the same time intervals in house conditions, and the values need to be written on paper. In order for the values to be valid, it is necessary to observe several rules:
- Be still for 10 minutes, in a sitting position prior to the measuring
- Take narrow clothes off
- Place the hand on a table at the heart level, with the palm turned upwards
At every visit to the doctor, records on measurements should be taken along. These values are important for the doctor, as he will judge on their basis whether the artery hypertension is under control, and will consider introduction of other drugs and recommend other measures.
- Reduce body mass, avoid salt and fat intake, stop smoking, do not consume alcohol, walk and have some other physical activity pertaining to your age and health condition.
- Take therapy regularly (take drugs). You can find dozers in pharmacies (boxes to allocate drugs into) so that you do not forget to take your therapy.
- Perform self-control of your blood pressure.
- Go to your doctor immediately if the blood pressure values go above 200mmHg.